The development of the printed circuit board is an important advancement in the field of electronics. Its application in the assembly of integrated circuits has great impact on machines today. It allowed for the reduction of the size, increased functional reliability, and even decreased energy consumption.


Manufacturing printed circuit boards is easier and costs less compared to making any other form of wiring technology. Although extra effort is needed in designing the board, most of the processes involved in manufacturing printed circuit boards can be done by computer-guided instruments. Nevertheless, producing printed circuit boards can also be done manually.

In producing a printed circuit board

The things needed are board/laminate, thin sheet of copper (copper foil), chemical for etching (ferric chloride), drilling machine, annular rings, pads, and soldering equipment. In a large-scale production, important computer software must also be prepared for some advanced processes such as photo lithography, testing, drilling, etc.

The board is made of non-conducting materials. A good board or base metal (substrate) is made of glass fiber (FR4). Other less expensive but less rigid alternatives are plastic (Kapton) and cotton paper.

The first step is to laminate the thin copper sheet on one or both sides of the substrate. It is done by applying heat and pressure on top of copper-covered board for a few minutes. Once the copper sheet is firmly pressed on the substrate, the next step is to draw the required pattern for the copper tracks. The pattern is generated by Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) software. There are many open-source CAMs out there so it shouldn’t be hard to get one.

There are many complicated methods to imprint the pattern on the copper sheet.

One is through the use of laser ink. For large-scale production of printed circuit boards, copper printing is done using machines dedicated for this purpose. In making simple printed circuit boards, the following process is applied. First, print the pattern using laser ink on a glossy piece of paper. Place the printed (glossy) side of the paper against the top of the board. Use an iron and press it against the board for a few minutes depending on the type of paper used. Submerge the board and the paper in hot water for 10 minutes. Remove the glossy paper and the pattern will be left printed on the board. Soak it again if some part of paper is hard to peel off.

Another method is by using a UV insulating chamber/machine and a photosensitive board.

The process is essentially the same as the previous one. Instead of glossy paper though, a transparent sheet is used. The pattern is printed using laser ink on the transparent sheet. The printed transparent sheet is then placed on top of the board. Afterwards, the board is put inside the UV radiating machine for 10 to 20 minutes. After getting the board out of the machine, all that needs to be done is remove the transparent sheet and clean the copper coated side.

The next step after the pattern is printed on the copper sheet is to submerge the board in the chemical etchant. Ferric chloride is commonly used for etching away unwanted copper. It can etch away the copper not covered by the laser-ink printed pattern. In the case of UV radiated board, the UV radiated copper is etched away while the one covered by the pattern from the UV light will remain.

Printed circuit board

The board should be left submerged for 3 to 5 minutes. Once that’s done, the etchant must be washed away with water. For the laser-ink patterned copper, just remove the ink using special solvents. Using sandpaper is also an alternative.

Drilling can be done, manually or using machines, once the unwanted copper is etched away. Annular rings and pads can then be inserted and installed. Layering the solder mask and adding the silkscreen label can then be done.

Simply put, there are several ways to make PCBs, although the most popular ones seem to be based on the same concept or procedure – the main difference lies in the materials used.

Author Bio
A printed circuit board is one of the fundamental parts of electronic equipment. It is important as it serves as the heart of the electronics, making everything function. Pcbnet your most reliable source for high quality and on time PCBs.

Choosing the Effective Design for Iron on Patches

If you are a business owner, then you need to make sure that your company’s iron on patches will be able to attract your target customers. Most prudent business owners take advantage of the company patch on the employee’s uniform to promote their business, and you should too.
Unfortunately, not everyone has a talent in designing. We, at Patches4Less, can help you come up with an effective patch design. You can tell us the things that you want to include in your patch and we will do our best to give you the design that will meet your satisfaction. We have talented artists who can come up with the most effective design for your company or purpose.

The Usual Practice in Design Creation

If you already have a design, you can submit it to us so our artists can make the digital proof for your patch design. You can send us a drawing or sketch, a picture of what you want for your design, and/or description that will guide our artists in Iron-on-patchescreating the design. You need to give us something or everything that you have in mind in order for us to come up with the effective design.
Right after the design creation is the formation of the digital proof, which our artists will also prepare. The digital proof will be sent to you for approval. If there is anything that you wish to revise, then we will gladly do it. Understand that revisions will never cost you anything – we do it for free. We want to meet your full satisfaction and we will not start the manufacturing process until we meet your full satisfaction regarding the design of your iron on patches.
If there are things on the design that you wish to add or delete, just let us know. We want to hear your complete and honest opinion so we can serve you better. If everything is settled and you are totally satisfied with your patch design, then we can start making your patches.
We will use the approved digital proof to produce the patches. As soon as we finished the number of pieces that you ordered, we will package and send them to you after inspecting them.

Tips on Choosing the Design

It is recommended to have a patch design that gives your target customers or audience a brief intro about your company, club, or organization. Give them something to look forward to.
The design should clearly convey the things that you offer and it should be appealing. It is also advisable to use the colors that you usually use for your logo so that your clients can easily see that the patch belongs to your company. Choosing the colors that are associated with your company or organization can make people think about your company whenever they see those colors.
Make sure the iron on patches is attractive enough to draw attention. Bear in mind that no one will take any interest in knowing the establishment behind the crappy patch.
It is also important to choose the right shape for your patch. Other than the colors that you use for your logo choose the colors that are pleasing to the eyes. If your company is known for selling outrageous or loud products, then it is prudent to choose colors that practically shout – your target customers expect it.
You have the choice to create a simple or loud design, just make sure that that design is just right for your business. Avoid making too plain or simple patches because people might not find them interesting. You can also go for a complicated design if you think that you can attract your target audience better if you use such design.

Attraction of Patches

Many companies or organizations like the iron on patch because it is easy to use and attach. You just need to iron it onto the garment and it will attach itself. However, you need to make sure that you are attaching it on the right spot and the surface is smooth.
The patches come in several designs and styles. They can be attached on garments, bags, and anything that uses denim or cotton fabric. More and more companies that use embroidered patches on the employee uniforms also prefer the iron on or sew on patches over direct embroidery. The iron on or sew on patch is also cheaper than direct embroidery.
If you are having a hard time creating your own unique design for your iron on patches, let us know how we can help you and we are more than glad to be of service.

Top 10 Callaway Golf Gift Ideas For Dad

At RockBottomGolf, we know that the struggle of finding a gift for any dad is undeniably real. However, if he happens to be a golfer, then Callaway Golf has the answer. Since its founding in 1982, Callaway Golf has continued to make and innovate golf equipment and accessories. The company offers some of the largest array of golf products, whether it’s an iron golf club or a leather glove. Probably one of the most trusted brands in the industry, all products are promised to be of top quality. Just some of the top golfers who believe in the brand include Phil Mickelson, Danny Willett, Danny Lee, Kevin Kisner, Branden Grace and Jason Gore. Whether it’s surprising dad with a complete set of golf clubs or some nice apparel, Callaway Golf just makes it more special.

Here we decided to list some nice gift ideas at all prices.

1) XR 16 Drivers

Golf DriversWhether you plan to buy the XR 16 Driver, XR 16 Pro Driver or XR 16 Sub Zero Driver; the XR 16 drivers are some of the best in the market. Every golf enthusiast hopes of having one, because of the XR 16 Drivers’ aerodynamic head shapes and improved speed steps.

2) Great Big Bertha

The name that made Callaway Golf famous, Big Bertha, has been perfected into the Great Big Bertha. It is designed to maximize distance from every swing by any golfer. It features high ball speed from Callaway’s Next Gen R•MOTO technology, head speed from Callaway’s multi-material chassis and control from an adjustable perimeter weighting.

3) XR 16 Fairway Woods

The XR 15 Fairway Wood features a bigger head shape for better hits. It is optimized with Callaway’s Hyper Speed Face Cup to maximize ball speeds. Also, it is designed with an aerodynamic head to add even more speed to every swing.

4) Apex Hybrids

With Callaway’s Forged Face Cup fused with its Internal Standing Wave, the Apex Hybrids promise both speed and versatility. The Forged Face Cup is made from Carpenter 455 Steel and is created to increase ball speed with any hit. The internal standing wave allows players to move the CG wherever they want.

5) Apex Pro 16 Irons

Probably one of Callaway’s best creations, the Apex Pro 16 Irons are certainly for the better golfer dads. These irons are considered to be the best in the market. It has a soft feel, because it was made from 1025 mild carbon steel. It features a progressive CG for more precise plays. Also, it has premium shaft offerings, which is such a great deal.

6) MD3 Milled Matte Black

The MD3 Milled Matte Black flaunts a balanced wedge, a high toe profile and a semi-straight straight leading edge. They come with a variety of custom options, where players choose from several grips, finishes and shafts. They also come with new lofts that are sure to enrich any golfing experience.

7) Odyssey Works Marxman Fang Putter

The Odyssey Works Marxman Fang Putter promises increased stability and better alignment. It is one of the most trusted friends of any golfer. Combining Callaway’s best performing insert and new roll technology, this potter promises a quicker roll. Moreover, equipped with a dual fang chassis, players are allowed even more control.

8) 2016 Staff Bag

Callaway golfIf you’re thinking about giving something handy, the 2016 Staff Bag is surely it. This bag has nine pockets with magnetic closures for apparel, water bottles and accessories. It also has an umbrella sleeve and a rain hood. It only weighs twelve pounds and sports a classic red and white motif that any Callaway golfer would love. This is a bag that any golfer dad must have.

9) Strata Plus 16-Piece Men’s Set

When you want a quick gift that won’t fail, a complete set will do. This won’t require tedious research, and would lessen the chances of forgetting anything. The Strata Plus 16-Piece Men’s Set is complete with drivers, fairway woods, hybrids, irons or wedges, putters and a stand bag. The set promises both distance and forgiveness, which will help any golfer dad sharpen his skills.

10) Opticolor Gloves

Golf GlovesWhen your golfer dad has all the needed equipment, it won’t hurt to give him a leather glove. Callaway’s Opticolor gloves are fully constructed with leather for the best feel and fit. The gloves have perforations on the palm, top of the hand and fingers to reduce moisture and allow for better aeration. They also have an Opti FitTM adjustable closure for a secure feel with comfort. It is available in black, blue, red or green.

How a Motivational Speaker Delivers a Message

We agree that people nowadays pay less and less attention to topics that do not concern their current situation. They only do on topics that involve them, that span their interest. The current events, including an upcoming election; current issues like food sustainability, amendment of the rules and regulations; and anything that affects the society as a whole, catch people’s attention.


Being selective of the tons of information around, people seem to try absorbing lots of ideas as they think that will help them gain more knowledge or learn more skills; however, people are not machines that are able to store information for a long time. Effective learning takes place when new information is picked by the brain, understood clearly, and stored in the long-term memory.


The brain is so complex in itself. It chooses information which should stay in the short-term memory or long-term memory. Before diving into the depths of brain processes, let us tell you about the factors that affect learning.


The first one is passion about the subject or the eagerness to learn. Second, the effective delivery of the message delivered to the audience. The third is the relevance of the subject in one’s life. This means that the topic will benefit the audience, and they will be able to apply the information to handle their current situation and to solve real-life difficulties.


Combining and keeping in mind the three factors, a motivational speaker can catch and use the attention of the audience to deliver his message effectively. The learning of the audience can be reinforced when a speaker uses his gestures and voice to stress out important key points. This way, the audience retains those concepts easily. The facial expression can convey disinterest about a subject, making the disinterest obvious to the audience. As a result, they can get bored, and they think that the speaker has not invested effort and time for the material and for them.


While most people are visual learners, a motivational speaker can use his voice as a powerful tool that can help the listener recall emotions from a memory. A speaker’s voice can also create images and colors in the listener’s mind just by using the power of voice.Motivational Speaker


As visual learners, people need to see something, evidence that the idea is applicable, real, or believable. It is mainly through the vision that people are deceived. The auditory part of the brain can also be receptive to deception, to command or persuasion through the power of voice.


A speaker can have the innate ability to persuade while others do not. Using voice effectively is a skill. A monotonous voice is boring as it shows that the speaker has no interest whether the audience listens or not. Varying the tone, pace, and volume of voice is the key to an effective presentation.


People may probably notice that a motivational speaker increases his volume of voice gradually when he approaches an important point.


This is done for emphasis. Also, the pacing in speaking is also used. Funny statements are said in a fast way while the key points in a moderate pace.


Pause is another consideration in public speaking. It is a technique used to let the audience thoroughly understand the concept. This is also used before proceeding to a different subject or theme.


Just like in writing, speaking involves the elements of grammar and choice of words. However, preparation in speaking does not mean memorization. A motivational speaker does the job smoothly; if he is passionate about a subject, he does not need memorization techniques. He just needs to use the right words to make the speech not verbose, meaning having extraneous words that can just confuse the audience.


Just knowing the key concepts and the sequence by which they are delivered is enough to make a speech effective. Like in writing, speaking should have an introduction, a body, and conclusion. An organized transition of ideas will aid in the smooth delivery of the key points, making it easy for the audience to integrate the message as a whole.


We believe that speaking is a skill, not a job. So, companies should go for a motivational speaker who is knowledgeable and passionate about the topic – one who can deliver a speech effectively.

Level Up your Diet

The HCG Diet Drops is a highly effective weight loss product. It promises fast loss of those extra pounds without breaking a sweat. As amazing as it is, the HCG Diet Drops can be made more effective through the help of various Diet Essentials. These additional products serve as back up to the HCG Diet Drops.


Ready to lose one to two pounds per day? Start using the HCG Diet Drops to start your transformation into the new you. Diet Essentials raises the bar – making your weight loss journey with HCG drops more fulfilling.


hcg-dietThere are numerous Diet Essentials to enforce your weight loss with HCG Drops. These added accessories make weight loss easier and a smoother process. The HCG Diet Drops and the Diet Essentials work together to help you achieve your goal weight. While HCG Diet Drops Program is effective on its own. However, the use of Diet Essentials and other accessories make it easier to track the weight loss progress. Others help in getting rid of the excess fats for good. You might want to consider purchasing some of these Diet Essentials and accessories to make your weight loss journey easier.


The Diet Essentials are sold separately from the HCG Diet Kits. It is recommended, though, to purchase some of these Diet Essentials and accessories to make it easier to lose weight. Some of the available Diet Essentials include:


  • Body Scale:

Body ScaleAn accurate body scale will help in keeping track of your weight. Through this accessory, you will be able to determine the effectiveness of the HCG Diet Drops on you. You will know how much weight you are losing. Additionally, people taking the HCG Diet Drops will be given the chance to compare their before and after weights. This will assure them that their hard work is paid off. Make sure to choose for a body scale that will be able to calculate your body fat, bone and muscle measurements, body hydration, and overall weight. From these data, you will be able to determine whether you are underweight, normal, overweight, or obese. Obviously, opt for the body scale that is durable – preferably made from impact resistant material. Word of caution though, does not over analyze your body based on the data you get from the body scale. While it is good to check your weight from time to time, allow at least a day of rest from weighing. Going through the body scale for every single day will make you obsessed with your body. Small decrease in weight per day may make you frustrated, or worse discouraged. Try to weigh for about 3 days a week, with at least one day intervals.


  • Tape Measure:

Tape MeasureThis accessory works with the body scale. The tape measure also helps in keeping track of weight loss progress. Unlike the body scale which provides detailed data of this progress, the tape measure shows the physical progress and changes. It will give you an idea how much inches you have lost in the past few days or weeks. As with the body scale, too much use of the tape measure may lead to over analyzing the body. Use the tape measure to just about once a week to get results.


  • Xilo Gum:

Xilo GumGum is known to be a natural way to suppress appetite and hunger. Chewing Xilo Gum whilst undergoing HCG Diet Drops Program will make curbing your appetite easier. With its variety of delicious and sugar free flavors, Xilo Gum will not seem like a supplement for weight loss. Additionally, regular chewing of gum helps in fighting cavity build-up.


  • Meal Replacements:

Meal ReplacementsVarious meal replacements, like the Triumph Meal Replacements, can be partnered with the HCG Diet Drops. These types of Diet Essentials help in sustaining lean muscle. During weight loss, muscles may become weak and soft because of the burning of excess fats. Triumph Meal Replacements avoid this from happening. Aside from enhancing muscle composition, the body is given a boost of energy to help you to get through your daily activities. These meal replacements are often taken during the second phase of the HCG Diet Drops program. Although there is a decrease in appetite, you still have to eat and take nourishment. Triumph Meal Replacements can be consumed in place of physical food. They are low in calories and fat so you don’t need to worry about gaining weight. Their high protein content provides energy and muscle power. Most of all, they have different delicious flavors that you can enjoy!


  • Appetite Control Pills:

Appetite Control PillsThe Triumph Appetite Control Pills are great to be consumed during the third phase of the HCG Diet Drops Program. During the third phase, or the maintenance phase, you will need to control, not totally suppress, the appetite. Appetite is controlled to prevent regaining the weight that is lost. Triumph Appetite Control Pills contain natural ingredients such as: Raspberry Ketone, which aids in the acceleration of fat loss, and Hoodia, which provides energy.


  • Multivitamins:

MultivitaminsBecause less food is taken during the use of HCG Diet Drops, some important vitamins – usually found in food – is not consumed by the body. As such, there is a need to take multivitamins to supplement the daily vitamin needs of the body. Triumph Multivitamins consist of Vitamins A, B, C, and E. Phytonutrients cold also be taken from Triumph Multivitamins.


These are just some of the Diet Essentials you can opt for to assist you in your weight loss. These Diet Essentials will assist you in keeping the excess weight off of your body. Adding such weight loss accessories will definitely give a boost into your weight loss routine.